Diseases

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Avian Flu

  • Prevalent in countries in Asia: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam
  • Infected birds transmit the virus
  • May cause severe illness, conjunctivitis, upper respiratory problems, and/or death
  • Transmission from person-to-person has not yet occurred
  • Treatment includes antiviral medications such as amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamavir, zanamavir
  • PREVENTION is key!!!!
    No vaccine is available at this time 
    Avoid all types of birds and their habitat
    Avoid live poultry, and do not consume undercooked poultry
    Practice good hand washing

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Cholera

  • Acute intestinal infection
  • Prevalent in Indonesia, Eastern Europe, Africa, and the Iberian Peninsula
  • Caused by ingesting contaminated foods and beverages
  • Symptoms may include watery diarrhea, vomiting, painful leg cramps, and dehydration
  • Transmission from person-to-person is rare
  • Severe cases may include weight loss and severe abdominal cramping
  • Treatment includes rehydration therapy
  • PREVENTION is key!!!!
    Vaccinations are not recommended and are no longer available in the United States
    Avoid fish and shellfish
    Eat cooked foods that are served hot
    Wash fruits and vegetables and avoid other people handling your fruits and vegetables
    Drink carbonated beverages or beverages/ice made with boiled or chlorinated water
    Stay hydrated 
    Practice good hand washing

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Coccidioidomycosis, aka “valley fever”

  • Prevalence in United States: Arizona, Southern California, New Mexico, Western Texas, and Utah
  • Prevalence outside of United States: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Venezuela
  • Caused by inhalation of fungal spores found in soil
  • Most infections are asymptomatic
  • Rare symptoms may be: fever, headache, rash, muscle aches, dry cough, weight loss, and malaise
  • NOT transmitted from person to person
  • Unless dissemination occurs, no treatment is required
  • PREVENTION is key!!!!
    Effective vaccination is not available
    Avoid disturbing the ground OR wear a dust mask if disturbance of the ground will occur
    Avoid areas that have suffered natural disasters (earthquake, windstorm, tsunami, etc..)

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Cryptosporidiosis

  • Occurs worldwide, primarily in resource-poor countries
  • Caused by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated with feces, contact with contaminated surfaces, or oral-fecal route from person to person
  • Symptoms include watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and fever
  • PREVENTION is key!!!!
    No current vaccine available
    Practice good hand washing
    Always boil water
    Be aware of surroundings, especially swimming areas

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Dengue Fever

  • Occurs mostly in tropical and subtropical areas such as South Pacific, Asia, Caribbean, Americas, India, SE Asia and Africa
  • Greatly on the rise in urban areas
  • Transmitted by mosquitoes
    Mosquitoes are more likely to bite for a few hours in the morning and a few hours at night
    Mosquitoes can be found near standing water, for example, flower vases or pots, barrels, buckets, cans, etc.
    Mosquitoes also like the indoors, shady areas, and days that are overcast
  • Symptoms include sudden onset of a high fever, severe frontal headache, joint and muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and a rash evident on torso, arms, legs and face (most commonly 4–7 days after exposure)
  • Treatment should include rest, increase fluid intake, and Acetaminophen for fever
    DO NOT TAKE ASPIRIN OR NSAIDS
  • PREVENTION is key!!!!
    • No vaccine is currently available
      Avoid mosquito bites by keeping body covered with clothing (permethrin-treated) and insect repellent that contains DEET
      If possible, stay in well screened, air-conditioned spaces

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Lymphatic Filariasis

  • Prevalent in tropical areas including Sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, Southern Asia, the Western Pacific Islands, the northeastern coasts of South and Central America, and the Caribbean Islands
  • Caused by infected mosquitoes
  • Infection may be asymptomatic
    However, some symptoms may include: lymphedema in the arms, legs, scrotum, penis, or breasts
  • Treatment may include the drug diethylcarbamazine (DEC)
  • PREVENTION is key!!!!
    No vaccine is currently available
    Avoid mosquito bites by keeping body covered and use an insect repellent containing DEET

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Hepatitis Type A-Viral

  • Viral infection of the liver
  • Most prevalent in developing countries
  • Transmitted by feces of an infected person
    Also think sewage contamination
  • Symptoms may include: fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, and abdominal discomfort followed by jaundice
  • There is no specific treatment available for HAV
  • PREVENTION is key!!!!
    Complete the Hepatitis A vaccination series at least two weeks before departure
    Boil or cook foods and beverages for at least 1 minute
    Avoid potentially contaminated foods or beverages
    Do not eat uncooked shellfish
    Practice good hand washing

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Hepatitis Type B-Viral

  • Prevalent in Asia, Israel, Japan, areas of Europe, Honduras, Russia, Guatemala, Africa, areas surrounding the Amazon River Basin, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic
  • Transmitted through blood or blood-derived fluids of an infected person
  • Symptoms may include fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, and abdominal discomfort followed by jaundice
  • No specific treatment, but there are antiviral drugs available
  • PREVENTION
    Complete Hepatitis B vaccination series before departing
    Avoid skin-to-skin contact when blood or open wounds are exposed
    Always wear clean protective gloves when assisting people
    Avoid tattoos, body piercing, illicit drug injection, dental work, and sexual contact
    Practice good hand washing

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Hepatitis Type C-Viral

  • Higher prevalence in Africa, Asia, and Egypt
  • Caused by exchange of blood with an infected person
  • Typically no symptoms
    However, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, nausea, dark urine, jaundice, and fatigue (most common) may occur
  • No specific treatment, but there are antiviral drugs available
  • PREVENTION
    No vaccination available
    Avoid skin to skin contact when blood or open wounds are exposed
    Always wear clean protective gloves when assisting people
    Avoid tattoos, body piercing, illicit drug injection, dental work, and sexual contact
    Practice good hand washing

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Hepatitis Type E-Viral

  • Prevalent in Asia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Pakistan, Mexico, Nepal, the Middle East, and areas of Africa
  • Occurs primarily in adults
  • Transmitted by fecal-oral route, typically with contaminated drinking sources
  • Symptoms may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, and fever
  • No specific treatment is used for HEV infections
  • PREVENTION
    No vaccination is currently available
    Boil water and thoroughly cook food
    Practice good hand washing

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Leishmaniasis

  • Transmitted by sand flies
  • The infection can occur in a cutaneous or visceral form
  • Cutaneous forms occur in Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Iran, Iraq, Peru, Saudi Arabia, and Syria
  • Visceral forms occurs in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, and Sudan
  • Risk of a bite is highest from dusk to dawn
  • Cutaneous infection appears by one or more skin lesions, with or without pain and scab
  • Visceral infections appears by fever, weight loss, enlargement of liver and spleen, and anemia
    Can be fatal if left untreated
  • Treatment is available
  • PREVENTION

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)

  • Has been reported in Asia, North America, Europe, Hong Kong, Hanoi, Singapore, and mainland China
  • Caused by close contact with an infected person
  • May present with a high fever, chills, headache, malaise, myalgia, mild respiratory problems
  • Antibiotics used for pneumonia are available, but no specific treatment is available for SARS
  • PREVENTION
    Practice good hand washing

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Schistosomiasis

  • Prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern China, Philipines, and Brazil
  • Caused by infected snails that release larvae that penetrate unbroken human skin
    Found in contaminated fresh water
  • Typically asymptomatic
    However, symptoms may include fever, lack of appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain, hematuria, weakness, headaches, diarrhea, nausea, cough, and joint and muscle pain
  • Treatment may include Praziquantel or Oxamniquine
  • PREVENTION
    No vaccine is available
    Avoid fresh water in prevalent areas

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Typhoid Fever

  • Occurs worldwide
    High risk areas: Asia, Africa, Central and South America
  • Caused by contaminated foods and beverages
  • Symptoms may include persistent high fever, headache, anorexia, splenomegaly, and bradycardia
  • PREVENTION
    Vaccination is available, but not 100 percent effective
    Practice good hand washing
    Boil beverages and cook foods thoroughly

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

  • Three groups
    1) Ebola and Marburg viruses
  • Have been reported in the Congo, Gabon, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and Zimbabwe
  • The host is unknown
    2) Lassa fever and the New World arenaviruses
  • Areas to be concerned with are Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria
  • Transmitted by infected rodents (inhalation of aerosols of rodent urine, ingestion of contaminated food, or direct contact with broken skin)
    3) Rift Valley fever and Crimean Congo fever viruses
  • Have occurred in Africa, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kenya, Tanzania, China, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates
  • Transmitted by infected livestock, ticks, mosquitoes, and other infected animals
    Treatment should include fluid and electrolyte balance, maintain adequate oxygenation, maintain adequate blood pressure, and prevent secondary infections
  • PREVENTION
    Avoid areas dealing with an outbreak
    Avoid contact with rodents, livestock, ticks, and mosquitoes
    Avoid contact with an infected dead body

It is important that you seek professional medical advice if you experience any signs or symptoms of disease/illness.

 

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